Detailed Anatomy Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical Sciences (MBBS) Program

It has always been a debatable issue that how much anatomy should be taught to undergraduate medical students during their basic sciences or preclinical years training. This post has tried to answer the question. The document may serve as guideline to help review and prepare the anatomy curriculum to be taught in an undergraduate medical sciences program.As this curricular document provides the "Anatomy Objectives with Action Verbs (Bloom's Taxonomy)", it will be easier to determine the depth of the contents too. The document has been prepared (also with the help of my colleague Mr. Dilip Rai, Ph. D. Scholar, Nippon medical School, Japan) after careful review of the curriculum from different universities in Nepal, the document from India and Europe and has been extensively reviewed by the experts from abroad and within the country. I have also tried to put a plan to teach anatomy in an integrated curriculum during basic sciences phase of undergraduate medical sciences (MBBS) program.

The two years of basic science can be divided into various units/blocks. A proposed model is presented below with the tentative durations within the parentheses.



Unit/block organization



Details of anatomy objectives with action verbs to be taught during the different units or blocks are presented below:


Unit / Block: Foundation – I (F1)

Contents:

General Anatomy
General Histology
Upper Limb*
Lower Limb*

*For convenience, it is appropriate to deal the Musculoskeletal (MSK) contents in segregated regional manner. For this reason, I prefer to have Upper limb and lower limb contents in the Foundation I (F1) Unit/Block. It also reduces the burden in part of students to learn the big chunk of MSK in a single go.

Objectives:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

General Anatomy

  1. Use the anatomical terminologies appropriately.
  2. Classify the bone morphologically and quote the examples.
  3. Describe the parts of a long bone.
  4. Describe different types of epiphysis.
  5. Define the ossification and different types of ossification centres.
  6. Describe the blood supply of the typical long bone and appraise its significance in osteomyelitis.
  7. Summarize the steps of ossification and explain the significance of law of ossification.
  8. Differentiate among the different types of joints and list the examples.
  9. Describe the features of a typical synovial joint.
  10. Summarize the basic organization of nervous system and its functional significance.
  11. Summarize the organization of a spinal nerve and overview of its distribution.

General Histology

  1. Discuss the principles of routine histological techniques.
  2. Define epithelium.
  3. Classify the lining and glandular epithelial tissue with examples and summarize the functions of each type of epithelial tissue.
  4. Define connective tissue.
  5. Classify the connective tissue with examples and summarize the functional significance of each type.
  6. Describe the features and functional significance of cartilage with examples of different types of cartilage.
  7. Describe the structural organization of bone.
  8. Classify the bone on the basis of its macroscopic and microscopic features.
  9. Classify the muscle tissue and describe the features of each type.
  10. Classify the nervous tissue.

Upper Limb

  1. Describe and demonstrate the main anatomical landmarks of the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius and ulna.
  2. Identify the bones in an articulated hand.
  3. Describe the regions, fascia and fascial compartment in upper limb.
  4. Describe the origin, course and distribution of the major arteries of upper limb.
  5. Describe the formation, courses and tributaries of the main veins of the upper limb.
  6. Describe the formation of the brachial plexus and explain the clinical manifestation resulting from injuries to the different parts of the brachial plexus.
  7. Describe the origin, course and distribution of the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median and ulnar nerves in the arm, forearm, wrist and hand.
  8. Name the main muscles and muscle groups that these nerves supply as well as their sensory distribution.
  9. Explain how and describe where the axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves are commonly injured and describe the consequences resulting from these injuries.
  10. Describe the boundaries of axilla and list its contents.
  11.  Describe the arrangement of axillary lymph nodes including their area of drainage and applied aspect.
  12. Describe the anatomy of shoulder joint, factors maintaining its stability, movements at this joint and summarize the muscles responsible for these movements with their attachment and nerve supply.
  13. Describe the anatomy of elbow joint, movements at this joint and summarize the muscles responsible for these movements with their main attachment and nerve supply.
  14. Describe anatomy of radioulnar joint and movements at this joint and name the muscles responsible for these movements including their main attachments and nerve supply.
  15. Describe the anatomy of wrist joint and movements at this joint and name the muscles group responsible for these movements.
  16. Describe the attachment and function of retinacula at wrist.
  17. Describe the formation of carpal tunnel and the cause and manifestation of carpal tunnel syndrome.
  18. Demonstrate the major surface landmark in upper limb.
  19. Demonstrate the surface anatomy of major vessels and nerves of upper limb.
  20. Identify the main radiological features of upper limb on standard diagnostic images.

Lower Limb

  1. Demonstrate the major features and surface landmarks of bones of lower limb.
  2. Describe the regions, fascia and fascial compartment in lower limb.
  3. Describe the origin, course and branches of the major arteries that supply the hip, gluteal region, thigh, leg, ankle and foot.
  4. Explain the functional significance of anastomoses between branches of these arteries at the hip and knee.
  5. Describe the formation, course and tributaries of major veins of lower limb.
  6. Explain the role of the perforator vein connections between the superficial and deep veins and the function of the ‘muscle pump’ for venous return to the heart.
  7. Describe the formation of lumbar and lumbosacral plexus and its major branches.
  8. Describe the origin, course and function of the sciatic, femoral, obturator, common peroneal and tibial nerves, sural and saphenous nerves and summarise the muscles and muscle groups that each supplies as well as their sensory distribution.
  9. Describe the boundaries of the femoral triangle and the anatomical relationships of the femoral nerve, artery, vein and lymph nodes to each other in the triangle.
  10. Discuss the anatomical basis of femoral herniation.
  11. Describe the structures in gluteal region.
  12. Describe the anatomy of hip joint, its movements and summarize the muscles responsible for these movements with their innervation and main attachments.
  13. Describe the boundaries and contents of the popliteal fossa.
  14. Describe the anatomy of knee joint and movements at knee joint and summarize the muscles responsible for these movements with their innervation and main attachments.
  15. Describe the menisci, ligaments and the locking mechanism of knee joint.
  16. Describe the bursae around knee joint and its applied aspect.
  17. Describe the anatomy of ankle joint and movements of it summarizing the muscles responsible for these movements with their innervation and main attachments.
  18. Describe the movements of inversion and eversion at the subtalar joint, the muscles responsible, their innervation and main attachments.
  19. Describe the arches of the foot and the bony, ligamentous and muscular factors that maintain them.
  20. Describe the lymphatic drainage of the lower limb.
  21. Identify the major radiological features of lower limb on standard diagnostic images.



Unit/Block: Foundation II (F2)

Contents:

General Embryology
Cytogenetics

Objectives:

At the end of the Unit/block, students should be able to:

General Embryology

  1. Define the common terminologies used in embryology.
  2. Define gametogenesis.
  3. Discuss the significance of gametogenesis.
  4. Summarize the process of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.
  5. Summarize the process of oogenesis.
  6. Discuss the process of ovulation.
  7. Summarize the steps of fertilization and discuss the result of fertilization.
  8. Discuss the fate of corpus leutum.
  9. Name the site of normal implantation.
  10. Define ectopic pregnancy.
  11. Summarize the normal development of establishment of bilaminar germ discs.
  12. Discuss uteroplacental circulation.
  13. Define gastrulation.
  14. Describe the establishment of trilaminar germ disc.
  15. Enumerate the derivatives of different germ layers.
  16. Summarize the normal development of notochord formation and neural tube formation.
  17. Name the division of mesoderm and its derivatives.
  18. Outline the changes in embryo and fetus at different stages of development.
  19. Discuss the function of placenta.
  20. Discuss the formation of placenta and enumerate the components of placenta.
  21. Enumerate the function of fetal membrane.
  22. Discuss the types and developmental basis of twinning.
  23. Identify the critical stages of development and the factors causing congenital malformations.

Cytogenetics

  1. Discuss the importance of genetics in medicine.
  2. Define the common terminologies used in medical genetics.
  3. Differentiate different mode of inheritance of genetic diseases and appraise the chance of inheritance in offspring.
  4. Describe chromosome and its structure and classify it.
  5. Explain the various types of chromosomal abnormalities.
  6. Discuss the phenotypic and karyotypic features of common chromosomal disorders.
  7. Interpret the karyogram.
  8. Appraise the use of family history and pedigree analysis.
  9. Outline the indications for chromosomal analysis.
  10. Discuss the different type of prenatal diagnostic modalities and explain its advantage and limitations/disadvantages.
  11. Outline the indications for prenatal diagnosis.
  12. Discuss genetic counseling.



Unit / Block: Hemopoetic System

Contents

Lymph nodes
Thymus
Spleen
Tonsil
Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue

Objectives

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. Explain the function of lymphoid organs.
  2. Classify the lymphoid organs (central and peripheral) with examples.
  3. Describe the location, position, gross features, relation, ligaments and blood supply of spleen relating with common diseases.
  4. Identify and describe the histological features of spleen.
  5. Describe the location and age-related changes of thymus.
  6. Identify and describe the histological features of thymus.
  7. Describe the features of various types of tonsil.
  8. Identify and describe the histological features of palatine tonsil.
  9. Define Waldeyer’s ring.
  10. Identify and describe the histological features of lymph node.
  11. Define Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue with examples.




Unit/Block: Respiratory System

Contents:

Pharyngeal apparatus
Nose and nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchus
Lungs and pleura
Thoracic cage
Diaphragm

Objectives:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. List the components of pharyngeal apparatus and its derivatives.
  2. List the developmental sources for various parts of respiratory system and explain the developmental basis for the various congenital anomalies related with respiratory system.
  3. List the developmental sources of diaphragm and pleura.
  4. Describe the features of lateral wall of nasal cavity and its blood supply.
  5. Describe the formation of median nasal septum and its blood supply in relation to nose bleeding.
  6. Name the paranasal sinuses and describe their relationships to the nasal cavities and sites of drainage on its lateral wall with applied aspect.
  7. Discuss the gross feature of larynx including its skeletal components and their interrealtionship.
  8. Explain the functional significance of intrinsic muscles of larynx in relation to regulating laryngeal inlet, controlling vocal cord position and tension and phonation.
  9. Describe the motor and sensory nerve supply of the larynx and the functional consequences of injury to them.
  10. Describe the gross feature of trachea and tracheopbronchial tree.
  11. Describe the gross features of lung and outline the structures in the hilum including mediastinal relations of each lung.
  12. Describe the blood and nerve supply and lymph drainage of the lungs.
  13. Define bronchopulmonary segment and explain its clinical significance.
  14. Describe the features of pleura, its innervation and pleural recesses explaining the clinical significance.
  15. Describe the attachment and the structures passing through diaphragm.
  16. Explain the position and movements of diaphragm during respiration.
  17. Summarize the motor and sensory nerve supply of diaphragm.
  18. Identify and describe the microscopic structure of parts of respiratory systems.
  19. Demonstrate the main features of thoracic vertebra, ribs and sternum.
  20. Summarize the formation of thoracic cage and boundaries of its inlet and outlet.
  21. Summarize the mechanism of respiration and the muscles involved in it.
  22. List the structures passing through thoracic inlet.
  23. Define the intercostals space.
  24. Explain the anatomy and function of intercostals muscles.
  25. Describe a neurovascular bundle in a typical intercostal space and outline its distribution.
  26. Demonstrate major surface landmark on thoracic wall.
  27. Demonstrate the surface markings of pleura and lungs
  28. Identify the major thoracic structures on standard diagnostic images.



Unit/Block: Cardiovascular System

Contents:

Heart and Pericardium
Great Vessels around Heart
Mediastinum and its contents

Objective:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. Explain the formation of heart tube and cardiac loop.
  2. Name the dilatation and derivatives of heart tube.
  3. Describe the developmental process of different parts of heart explaining the basis for major congenital heart anomalies.
  4. Name the derivatives of arches of aorta.
  5. List the developmental sources of inferior venacava, superior venacava and brachiocephalic vein.
  6. Explain the developmental basis of congenital anomalies of major vessels.
  7. Describe embryonic circulation, fetal circulation and changes after birth.
  8. Summarize the major anatomical features of heart and explain their functional significance.
  9. Describe the conducting system of heart.
  10. Describe the origin, course and main branches of the left and right coronary arteries and explain the functional consequences of their obstruction.
  11. Define coronary dominance.
  12. Name the different layers of pericardium, its relationship with heart and innervation.
  13. Identify and describe the histological features of heart, blood vessels and lymphatics.
  14. Describe the boundaries, subdivision and contents of mediastinum.
  15. Describe the course of the ascending aorta, the arch of the aorta and the descending thoracic aorta. Name their major branches and the structures they supply.
  16. Describe the formation, course and relationships of the brachiocephalic veins, superior vena cava and the azygos venous system.
  17. Describe the course and distribution of the vagus nerve on both the right and left sides of the thorax.
  18. Describe the origin, course and distribution of the phrenic nerve on both the right and left sides of the thorax.
  19. Describe the features and function of sympathetic trunk.
  20. Describe the course and major relations of the thoracic duct.
  21. Identify heart and major blood vessels on standard diagnoistic images.
  22. Demonstrate the surface marking for heart, major great vessels, valves and auscultatory areas.




Unit/Block: Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary System

Contents:

Oral cavity and salivary glands
Tongue and Palate
Pharynx
Oesophagus
Stomach
Small and large intestine
Caecum and appendix
Rectum and anal canal
Liver and extra hepatobiliary apparatus
Pancreas
Peritoneum
Portal vein and portocaval anastomosis
Anterior abdominal wall and inguinal canal
Lumbar vertebrae

Objectives:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. List the developmental sources of tongue and explain the developmental basis of innervation and common congenital abnormalities.
  2. Explain the developmental basis of cleft palate.
  3. Outline the establishment of gut tube.
  4. List the derivatives of foregut, midgut and hindgut.
  5. Describe the development process of parts of gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary organs, pancreas and associated structures and relate it with various congenital anomalies.
  6. Describe the oral cavity in terms of parts and contents.
  7. Describe the gross features of tongue including its intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and their action and its sensory and motor nerve supply.
  8. Describe the gross features of pharynx and enumerate the constrictors and longitudinal muscle of pharyngeal wall.
  9. Describe the nerve supply of pharynx (Motor & Sensory).
  10. Describe the gross feature, course and major relation of the oesophagus.
  11. Demonstrate the position of abdominal viscera in situ.
  12. Describe the anatomy of the stomach, its position, parts, sphincters, blood supply, nerve supply, lymphatic drainage and key relations to other abdominal organs.
  13. Describe the duodenum, its parts, position, blood supply and key relations with other abdominal organs and their significance in relation to peptic ulcer disease.
  14. Describe the morphological features of the small and large intestine, including the anatomy of the appendix.
  15. Describe the anatomical variations in the position of the appendix and explain their significance in relation to appendicitis.
  16. Describe the anatomy of the sigmoid colon and rectum and their anatomical relationships including peritoneal.
  17. Describe the features of anal canal including its innervation, blood supply and lymphatic drainage.
  18. Describe the gross features of the pancreas and its relationships to other abdominal organs.
  19. Describe the gross features of the liver, the lobes of the liver and their key anatomical relations including peritoneal reflections and other ligaments.
  20. Summarize the formation and tributaries of the portal vein and portocaval anastomosis and their significance in portal hypertension.
  21. Describe the gross features of the gall bladder and biliary tree; their relations in the abdomen and the significance of these relations in relation to gall bladder inflammation and biliary stones.
  22. Identify and describe the histological features of organs of GI system including tongue, hepatobiliary apparatus and pancreas.
  23. Describe the organization of the parietal and visceral peritoneum; its lesser and greater sacs, mesenteries and peritoneal ‘ligaments’.
  24. Describe the boundaries of epiploic foramen and its significance.
  25. Describe the attachment, function and contents of mesentery of small intestine.
  26. Describe the formation and boundaries of inguinal canal and relate the anatomy of inguinal canal with direct and indirect inguinal hernias.
  27. Describe the contents of the inguinal canal in both males and females.
  28. Describe the anatomy, innervation and function of muscles of anterior abdominal wall.
  29. Demonstrate the features of lumbar vertebra.
  30. Demonstrate the surface landmark on anterior abdominal wall.
  31. Demonstrate the descriptive abdominal region.
  32. Demonstrate the surface anatomy of viscera of GI tract, hepatobiliary apparatus, pancreas and vessels (abdominal aorta, its major branches, inferior venacvava and portal vein).
  33. Identify organs of GI tract and hepatobiliary apparatus and their features on standard diagnostic images.



Unit/Block: Urinary System

Contents:

Kidney
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Uretha

Objectives:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. List the developmental sources for various parts of urinary system.
  2. Explain the developmental basis for the various congenital anomalies related with urinary system.
  3. Describe the gross features of kidney and its relationship.
  4. Describe the gross features of ureter and its relationship.
  5. Describe the gross features of urinary bladder.
  6. Describe the gross features of urethra.
  7. Demonstrate the surface anatomy of kidney.
  8. Identify and describe the histological features of organs of urinary system.
  9. Identify the radiological features of urinary system on standard diagnostic images.




Unit/Block: Endocrinology and Reproductive Systems

Contents:

Endocrine glands
Male reproductive organs
Female reproductive organs
Pelvis and Pelvic diaphragm
Perineum and External Genitalia
Breast

Objectives:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. List the developmental sources of different endocrine organs/glands and explain the developmental basis for various congenital anomalies. 
  2. Describe the gross features, arterial supply and venous drainage of thyroid gland. (Significance of its relation with laryngeal nerve)
  3. Describe the location and features of parathyroid glands.
  4. Describe the gross features of pituitary gland.
  5. Describe the gross features of suprarenal gland.
  6. Explain and identify the microscopic structure of endocrine glands/organs.
  7. Describe the features of bony pelvis, pelvic inlet and pelvic outlet.
  8. Explain the sex differences in bony pelvis between male and female.
  9. Name the muscles of pelvic floor and discuss its functional significance.
  10. Relate the developmental process of male and female reproductive organs with various anomalies.
  11. Relate the developmental process of external genitalia in male and female with various anomalies.
  12. Female reproductive organs.
    1. Describe the position and gross features of the ovary, uterine tubes, uterus (including supports of uterus), cervix and vagina and their anatomical relationships, including any peritoneal coverings.
    2. Describe the gross anatomy of breast, its blood supply and lymphatic drainage.
    3. Identify and describe the histological features of ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina and breast.
  1. Male reproductive organs.
    1. Describe the gross anatomy of testis and epididymis.
    2. Explain the significance of their arterial supply in relation to torsion, their venous drainage in relation to varicocoele and their lymphatic drainage in relation to tumour spread.
    3. Describe the course of the spermatic cord and vas deferens.
    4. Describe the anatomy of the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and their anatomical relations.
    5. Describe the changes in prostate gland with age.
    6. Describe and identify the histological features of testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle and prostate gland.
  1. Discuss the features of perineum including male and female external genitalia.
  2. Describe the boundary and contents of ischiorectal fossa and its applied importance.
  3. Identify the radiological feature of female reproductive system on standard diagnostic images.




Unit/Block: Musculoskeletal and  Integumentary System

Contents:

Spinal column
Triangles of neck
Cervical fascia
Atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial Joints
Face
Scalp
Parotid region
Temporal and infratemporal fossa
Temporomandibular Joint
Submandibular region
Cranial meninges, Dural folds and Dural Venous Sinuses
Bony orbit
Skin and its appendages

Objectives:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. Discuss the normal development of face and associated common birth defects.
  2. Describe the organization, curvatures and postnatal developmental changes of spinal column.
  3. Describe the anatomy of intervertebral articulations and intervertebral discs.
  4. Discuss the role of principal group of muscles and ligaments of the spinal column in its stability and movement.
  5. Relate the anatomy of spinal column with common back problems.
  6. Describe the scalp in terms of its layers, blood supply, innervations and applied aspects.
  7. Describe the sensory and motor supply of face and consequences of injury to nerves supplying the muscles of facial expression.
  8. Describe the boundaries, subdivisions and contents of anterior and posterior triangle of neck.
  9. Identify the deeper structures in the neck.
  10. Describe the suprahyoid and infrahyoid group of muscles, their actions and innervations.
  11. Describe the formation of cervical plexus and their distribution.
  12. Describe the disposition of deep cervical fascia and its clinical significance.
  13. Describe the formation, course, tributaries and applied anatomy of external jugular vein.
  14. Describe the origin, course and branches of common carotid artery including external carotid artery.
  15. Describe the formation, course, tributaries and termination of internal jugular vein.
  16. Describe the anatomy of atlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints and the movements at these joints.
  17. Demonstrate the regions/fossae listed below and identify the structures in each of them
    1. Parotid region
    2. Temporal fossa
    3. Infratemporal fossa and
    4. Submandibular Region
  18. Describe the anatomy of parotid gland and its relation with facial nerve.
  19. Describe the anatomy of temporomandibuilar joint, its movements and the muscles acting up on the joint including their innervation.
  20. Enumerate the muscles of mastication and their nerve supply.
  21. Describe the arrangement of the cranial duramater, its main reflections within the cranial cavity and the arrangement of the dural venous sinuses.
  22. Explain the relationship between dural venous sinuses and extracranial veins in spreading intracranial infection.
  23. Describe the boundaries and contents of orbit.
  24. Describe the action and nerve supply of extraocular muscles and explain the consequences of injury to the nerve supplying these muscles.
  25. Describe the arrangement of the lymphatic drainage of the head and neck, the major groups of lymph nodes and the potential routes for the spread of infection and malignant disease.
  26. Demonstrate the surface landmark and surface anatomy of major structures in head and neck.
  27. Describe the features of skull and individual bones of skull.
  28. Demonstrate the major sutural joints and describe the fontanelles of the fetal skull.
  29. Demonstrate the major foramina in a skull and list the structures passing through it.
  30. Demonstrate the types and features of cervical vertebra.
  31. Demonstrate the position and features of hyoid bone.
  32. Demonstrate the radiological features of head on standard diagnostic images
  33. Relate the normal developmental process of skin and its appendages with common developmental anomalies.
  34. Describe and identify the histological features of skin and hair follicle.




Unit/Block: Nervous System and Special Senses

Contents:

Cerebrum
Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Brainstem
Cerebellum
Basal ganglia,
Ventricles
Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Spinal Cord
Blood supply
Cranial Nerves
Eye ball
Ear

Objective:

At the end of the unit/block, students should be able to:

  1. Define the terminologies: Rostral and Caudal, ventral and dorsal in relation to nervous system.
  2. Describe the formation of neural tube and enumerate the developmental source of the different parts of the brain
  3. Explain the basis for developmental anomalies related with nervous system.
  4. Identify the different parts of central nervous system.
  5. Identify the major sulci (lateral, central, parieto-occipital and calcarine) and illustrate the lobes of cerebral hemisphere with its demarcation.
  6. Summarize the area of cerebral hemisphere subserving major special function: Motor, Sensory, auditory, visual, speech (Sensory and motor), personality, intelligence.
  7. Apply the knowledge of functional areas of cerebral hemisphere to explain the manifestation of related disorders.
  8. Define the cerebral dominance.
  9. Identify and describe the histological features of cerebral cortex.
  10. Name the different types of white fibres (commissural, association and projection).
  11. Describe the corpus callosum.
  12. Describe the internal capsule.
  13. Describe the blood supply of the brain and apply the knowledge to explain the functional deficit resulted by injury to arteries.
  14.  Describe the location, relation, parts, nuclei and important connections of thalamus.
  15.  Describe the location, relation, parts, nuclei and  connection of hypothalamus.
  16. Summarize location, components, important connection and function of basal ganglia and explain the manifestation of related disorders.
  17. Describe the gross features of different parts of brainstem, disposition of cranial nerves nuclei within it and important tracts/fasciculus passing through it. (PBL and Lab - Week II)
  18. Identify the structure observed in the base of the brain.
  19. Describe the gross features of cerebellum and its division.
  20. List the deeper nuclei of cerebellum.
  21. Summarize the important connection in cerebellum and explain the manifestation in diseases/disorders.
  22. Identify and describe the histological features of cerebellum.
  23. Describe the gross feature of spinal cord and the tracts (ascending and descending tracts with their    functional significance).
  24. Summarize the arrangement of nuclei within the grey matter of spinal cord.
  25. Describe the blood supply of the spinal cord and its applied aspects.
  26. Explain the manifestation of spinal cord injuries/diseases.
  27. Identify the microscopic structure of spinal cord.
  28. Describe the gross features of ventricles.
  29. Describe the layers of meninges and its relation with brain and spinal cord.
  30. Describe the circulation and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid.
  31. Identify the major features of brain on coronal, horizontal and sagittal sections and on standard diagnostic images.
  32.  Describe the functional component, nuclei of origin, course, distribution and functional significance of cranial nerves and explain the related clinical conditions.
  33. Summarize the process of development of eye and explain the basis for retinal detachment of eye.
  34. Identify and explain the gross feature of different parts of eyeball.
  35. Describe the visual pathway and explain the related clinical conditions.
  36. Summarize the functional anatomy of external ear and external auditory meatus.
  37. Describe the gross feature of tympanic membrane and applied aspect.
  38. Describe the gross anatomy of middle ear.
  39. Describe the functional anatomy of internal ear.
  40. Explain the auditory pathway and explain the related clinical conditions.
  41. Identify and list the layers of microscopic structure of cornea and retina.
  42. Identify and describe the features of microscopic structure of organ of Cortii.